President Barack Obama's second inauguration Monday is going to be smaller than his historic first swearing-in, but still full of glamour and pomp.Estimates of turnout are 600,000 to 800,000, compared with a record 1.8 million in 2009. Yet recent developments have shown that enthusiasm is high.A limited offering of $60 inaugural ball tickets for the public sold out quickly, and an impressive list of celebrities, including Kelly Clarkson, Beyonce, Katy Perry and Usher, is set to perform.Obama has cut the number of balls from 10 last time to just two this year. But organizers are expecting 35,000 people to attend the larger ball, and 4,000 people are expected to attend a ball in honor of U.S. troops -- double the size of two years ago.When the president takes the oath of office, he will place his left hand on Bibles owned by Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King Jr.The first family will lead a parade of clanging bands, elaborate floats and marchers, including costumed dancers, prancing horses and military units, down Pennsylvania Avenue. The president will dance with the first lady, whose dress seems destined to be the most anticipated fashion statement of the second Obama administration.With all of the excitement surrounding the 57th presidential inauguration, it's easy to forget that there have been many inaugurations before it.Over the years, the event has become highly formalized, with the day's scheduled events taking on almost ritualistic significance.Here's a look at the history of some of the traditional behind-the-scenes events, and the public activities that will be seen on TV. (Check local listings.)Morning worship serviceOfficially begun in 1933 with Franklin Delano Roosevelt's attendance at a church service at St. John's Episcopal Church (Washington quietly visited a church before his first inauguration), nearly every president since has decided to participate in faith services on the morning of the inauguration.While most presidents went to Protestant churches, John F. Kennedy, the nation's first Roman Catholic president, attended services at Holy Trinity Church.Procession to the CapitolEvery president has had a form of procession to the swearing-in ceremony, but the procedure we see today was established in 1849 with Zachary Taylor's inauguration ceremony. After being escorted to the White House by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies -- commonly referred to as the JCCIC -- the president-elect, vice president-elect and their spouses are joined by the outgoing president and vice president to journey to the Capitol for the swearing-in ceremony.Most presidents have ridden to their inaugurations in a carriage or automobile. Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson both walked to their ceremonies. In 1869, Andrew Johnson became the third outgoing president to not accompany his successor on the procession; Johnson was inside the White House until his term expired at noon, signing last-minute bills into law.Vice president's swearing-in ceremonyThe Constitution specifically requires the vice president and other elected officials to step forward to take an oath to defend the Constitution, but unlike with the presidential oath, it does not specify the form that oath must take. Also unlike the presidential procedure, a variety of public officials can and have administered the oath to the incoming vice president.The vice president's oath, dictated by Congress, is the same one repeated by senators, representatives and other government officers, and has been in use since 1884. Since 1981, the swearing-in ceremonies have been held at the west front terrace of the Capitol.President's swearing-in ceremony and inaugural addressArticle II, Section 1 of the U.S. Constitution includes the oath of the office of president. The president is typically sworn in by the chief justice of the Supreme Court in front of the Capitol, though this has frequently changed due to circumstance.The Constitution's 20th Amendment, passed by Congress in March 1932 and ratified by the necessary number of states by the following January, sets the inauguration date as Jan. 20, at noon.Because that's a Sunday this year, Obama will take the official oath of office that day in a private ceremony. A public ceremony will be held Jan. 21 on the west front of the U.S. Capitol. Inaugural ceremonies are not traditionally held on Sundays because courts and other public institutions are closed.The oath reads:"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."Those words transform citizen to president and mark the beginning of a new administration.Franklin Pierce, in March 1853, became the only president to "affirm" instead of "swear" that he would protect and defend the Constitution. Some sources suggest that Herbert Hoover also opted to affirm, but the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library Association in Iowa says Hoover did not repeat the oath in 1929, and simply said "I do" after it was read to him.And, of course, the president's swearing-in ceremony is accompanied by the inaugural address, which is often the most anticipated portion of the inauguration. Though George Washington's first address was lackluster, others have set the tone for a presidency. William Henry Harrison gave his inaugural address -- the longest on record -- in bitterly cold and inclement weather, which was widely speculated to have led to his death a month later.Departure of the outgoing presidentThe 1889 "Handbook of Official and Social Etiquette and Public Ceremonies at Washington" described the ceremony this way:"His departure from the Capital is attended with no ceremony, other than the presence of the members of his late Cabinet and a few officials and personal friends. The President leaves the Capital as soon as practicable after the inauguration of his successor."But from the start -- the 1797 inauguration of John Adams, attended by Washington -- the public has always paid a great deal of attention to the outgoing president. In recent years, newly installed presidents have accompanied their predecessors to a helicopter waiting to see off the former president and his spouse.Inaugural luncheonThis tradition started in 1897, when the Senate Committee on Arrangements gave a luncheon for President William McKinley. Other presidents played host in a similar manner -- in 1945, Roosevelt hosted more than 2,000 guests at the White House.The tradition did not begin in its current official form until 1953, when President Dwight Eisenhower and 50 other guests of the JCCIC ate creamed chicken, baked ham and potato puffs in the Old Senate Chamber. The JCCIC luncheon usually includes speeches, gifts from the JCCIC and toasts to the new administration.Inaugural paradeThe parade dates back to the first inauguration of George Washington. Local militias joined Washington's procession as it passed through towns on his journey from Mount Vernon to New York City, where he was met by the Continental Army, government officials and other prominent citizens who escorted him to his swearing-in ceremony at Federal Hall.When the JCCIC has concluded its luncheon, the president and vice president will journey down Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House amid streamers, confetti and general celebration.While the first parades were informal affairs, James Madison was accompanied by cavalry during his 1809 inauguration, setting the tone for the future. Abraham Lincoln's second inauguration in 1865 -- 148 years before this year's swearing-in of Barack Obama -- was the first time blacks were allowed to march in the parade.Woodrow Wilson's second inauguration in 1917 saw women, for the first time, take part in the inaugural parade. Obama's parade four years ago included the Lesbian and Gay Band Association for the march along Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House. The association was the first lesbian and gay group in history to participate in a president's inaugural parade.Inaugural ballThough the practice began informally, with multiple balls following Washington's first inauguration, the growing number of balls necessitated the construction of dedicated ballrooms in Judiciary Square. Eventually, the idea of a single ball that could accommodate thousands of guests was embraced by partygoers who wished to view the newly sworn-in president.The tradition really began in 1809, when Dolley Madison hosted a gala for her husband, James Madison. Four hundred tickets were sold for $4 each. The tradition took hold as supporters reveled in the idea of a night to fete their new president with dancing and music.The event was canceled for the first time in 1853, when Franklin Pierce wished to mourn the loss of his son. Sixty years later, Woodrow Wilson canceled the inaugural ball, and the practice of private parties sprang up when Warren G. Harding asked for a simple affair without pageantry to mark his inauguration.In 1949, Harry Truman revived the practice of the ball, and Eisenhower's inauguration in 1953 necessitated a second ball because of great demand for tickets. The number of balls reached a high of 14 during the second inauguration of President Bill Clinton in 1997.Source: Yale Law School's Avalon Project; inaugural.senate.gov, 2013pic.org
TV coverage of Inauguration Day
Most local stations and cable news networks will carry some coverage.
The Inaugural National Prayer Service will be webcast live at www.nationalcathedral.org.
The President's Swearing-in Ceremony will begin around 10:30 a.m.
The Presidential Inauguration Parade will start about 1:30 p.m.
Who pays for all this?
Much of the cost is picked up by supporters and other private donors, as it has been for years. In 2009, Obama raised $53 million in private money for his inauguration. The private money pays for the official inaugural balls, the traditional parade, giant TV screens on the mall for the swearing-in and thousands of portable toilets.
Public money is used for security, which is harder to put a price tag on. Secret Service doesn't discuss it, but the federal government reimbursed the District of Columbia $44 million for the 2009 inauguration. That was just for city costs, not Secret Service or military personnel.
Other public money that has been set aside for this inaugural:
The Architect of the Capitol has $4.2 million to spruce up the Capitol grounds for the swearing-in ceremony on the west front. That money also pays for the inaugural platform construction, along with bleachers and barricades.
Nearly $2 million has been approved for U.S. Capitol Police.
$1.2 million has been budgeted for the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, which handles all of the events taking place on the Capitol grounds.
Who plans and coordinates the festivities?
The Presidential Inaugural Committee, chosen by the president-elect, coordinates all of the official events outside the Capitol, where the swearing-in takes place. The committee handles the parade, official inaugural balls and planning for crowds on the National Mall.
The JCCIC is responsible for staging the day's activities on the Capitol grounds, meaning the swearing-in ceremony and the traditional inaugural luncheon after for the president and vice president.
For the Department of Defense, the Joint Task Force National Capital Region coordinates the military's participation in inaugural activities. That includes marching bands, color guards, firing details and salute batteries for the parade, as well as security and medical support for inaugural activities. About 5,000 service members are expected to take part in this inaugural.
-- The Associated Press